What role does listening play in oral communication within the criminal justice system? How do the various types of listening play a role in effective communication? Compare and contrast the most important listening types and why they are important in the criminal justice system.
Barriers To Communication Within The Criminal Justice System
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Effective communication is critical within criminal justice organizations. When communicating with criminals, witnesses, suspects, victims, attorneys, and law enforcement, it is imperative that effective communication is employed, because if not, it could change the life of other people. Criminal justice organizations utilize formal and informal channels that include verbal, non-verbal, and paraverbal communication. Law enforcement officers must be skilled in the art of communication; both oral and written. Much of law enforcements communication has to do with reporting. It is important that law enforcement officers skill include “the ability to read, write, and understand what is written, as well as orally transmit and receive information.” Informal channels of communication can come from morning roll call within a police department all the way to formal communications, such as written reports and testimony. However, both formal and informal communications must be effectively communicated to achieve success.
Communication Process in Criminal Justice System
Channels of information refer to the methods or avenues that by which information flows from one party to another. The direction of information indicates the way in which communication flows. There are two communication channels used in any organization, formal and informal. Formal channels are types of communication that usually follow the chain of command within the organization (Lord & Cowan 2011). This type of communication is typified by formal orders, directives, and written memorandums. While these types of orders provide a sense of security and order, they can be time consuming. The apparent advantage to this type of channel is the paper trail that it creates, which is ideal for criminal justice situations. Informal channels are unofficial routes of communication. They may not be officially sanctioned by the organization but are necessary to provide the linkage to the formal channels. Direction of communication also implies the different directions in which information flows. Information can travel in a number of ways within an organization, but the three most common directions are as follows: downward, upward and horizontal (Grubb & Hemby 2003).
The downward direction coincides with formal channels of communication. Downward communication is information that travels from mangers or supervisors to subordinates. There are usually three broad categories to this direction: orders, procedures and personnel information. Orders are downward communications that relate to a specific job assignment or performance. These are directed to individuals rather than at the whole group. Procedures are downward communications that are directed to a broad subject, flowing from the top to the bottom of the organization. Lastly personnel information is a broad area of communication that covers the entire spectrum of personnel issues, from personnel evaluations to time leave. In many instances, this type of communication has a substantial impact on the morale of the organization, along with the personal lives and families of the members of the organization (Fitzgerald et al., 1978).
Upward communication is information from subordinates that travel from the bottom of the organization up to the …
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