Week 5 Ethical Decision Exercise

Week 5 Ethical Decision Exercise

A prominent politician who is married and has two children was surreptitiously photographed engaging in an extramarital affair.

Answer each of the following questions to this incident:
1. What do I know of the controversy?
2. What do I need to know?
3. What is my purpose for reporting this controversy?
4. How does reporting this controversy affect my ethical beliefs?
5. Does the gender of the politician make a difference?
6. What professional guidelines do I need to consider?
7. Is it important to include other people’s perspectives and diverse ideas in my report?
8. Who is affected by my report? What would my consequences be?
9. Should I have to justify my thinking and my decisions to my audience?

Week 5 Ethical Decision Exercise

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Blass (2003)defines psychoanalysis as a system of therapy and psychological theory that aims in eliminating mental disorders through the investigations of both the conscious and unconscious elements in the mind. In addition, the study also aims at investigating the conflicts and fears that occur in the mind by a set of techniques such as free associations. As a therapy, the studies are based on the daily observations made by individuals and are in most cases not aware of the factors that may be the main determinants of their behavior and emotions. Furthermore, the study aims at releasing emotions that are repressed and are often experienced by people. Anxiety and depression are some of the most common disorders treated by psychoanalysis .The major components and foundations of psychoanalysis are addressed in the paper below.

Components and Foundations of Psychoanalysis

In the first place, psychoanalysis is comprised of three main components that comprise of the conscious, sub-conscious and the pre-conscious mind. As the title implies, the conscious mind is made up of the things that human beings are attentive and in most cases aware of. It further comprises of the current process of thinking in the mind of human beings, the various processes and behaviors that make beings become more aware of their current environment (Dreher, 2000). As seen from the above statements, it is therefore right for one to come to the conclusion that the conscious mind is highly comprised of the major parts of the current awareness of human beings. In addition, the concept can go ahead to be validated as majority of the people have at one time in their lifetime been heard of saying “I have a clear conscious” in the daily casual conversations they are found to engage in. According to Stern (2000), our conscious mind, however, is made up of a very small percentage of the general personality of a human being. This is because majority of the people are not informed about what is going on in their minds.

The second major component of psychoanalysis comprises of the preconscious mind. It is made up of the many things that we are aware of and we are well informed about them. However, despite the fact that human beings are well informed on the surroundings, many of them are not attentive to the things. Guntrip (1978) says that Psychologists have further conceived that a person can either chose to pay high levels of attention to the things that they don’t usually concentrate in and carry them to the conscious mind part. In addition, it has come to the realization that the preconscious mind can be able to be controlled by regulating the level of awareness that always seeks to expand the human consciousness. A good way that can help a person think about the preconscious mind is due to the fact that it acts as a link between the unconscious and conscious mind (Grunbaum, 1985). Furthermore, this set component of the mind allows some certain pieces of information to pass and enter the conscious awareness part of the mind.

At the subconscious level, it will be noted that the content and processes of the body will be out of the direct reach of the conscious part of the mind. It is therefore, right to come to the conclusion that the subconscious mind thinks and operates independently when compared to the other components of the mind. In addition, the findings made by psychological experts have showed that much behavior that is portrayed by human beings is often driven from the subconscious mind. Furthermore, it is made up of the alarming consequences that make it hard for some people to control their behavior. More recent research has indicated that the subconscious mind is in more control of the actions seen by human beings. As Blass (2003) explains, a major way to look at the subconscious mind is to look at it as a storeroom for majority of the activities that are not part of the conscious part in the current situations. It is further the part that is involved in the storage of nearly majority of the things that comprise of life events such as memories and skills.

On the part of its foundation, psychoanalysis is believed to have been started around the early years of 1984 by a book that was published by Grunbaum with the intention of providing a critique of Freud on a fact regarding the psychoanalytic theory. The argument was made due to the claim that majority of the assumptions created by Freud were not based on empirical research. In addition, he goes ahead to criticize the information given by the famous scholar Popper saying that there is no way in which psychoanalytic propositions cannot be disconfirmed. Grunbaum goes ahead to consider such scientist as being poor readers who carryout research without having full evidence and information about the topics and areas in which they chose to dwell and specialize in. The increased condemnation of the assumptions made it necessary for the scholars to venture more into getting the rights kind of information about psychoanalysis.

Contributions of Psychoanalytic models

Ever since its adoption, psychoanalysis has played crucial roles in the lives of human beings. Among others, some of the major advantages realized by the practice comprise of concepts such as dream analysis, transference and unconscious among others. To start with, dream interpretation technique is of essential help especially in situations that require one to deeply understand the processes that occur in the mind (Stern, 2000). Through the help of psychoanalysis, it has come to the realization that faulty actions of the body come as a result of both the unconscious and conscious wishes such that when stimulated, lead to a seemingly trivial events.

Psychoanalytic models have made it easy for medical experts to use the transference technology. The phenomenon takes place when a person gets the expectations and perceptions of another person and further goes ahead to project them into another person (Grubaum, 1985). Good interactions among the people makes them relate well as if they the person is the transferred. The technique enables people to become other persons that others believe they are. Such kinds of practices are ever growing in different parts of the world. Medical experts make up the largest group of individuals that use the technology to help them relate and understand their patients well.

Another major contribution of the psychoanalytic model is the conscious aspect. It has been noted that the aspect has played very effective roles in ensuring that human beings get a better understanding of their behavior and why some people relate and react in different ways. Furthermore, the concept makes it easy for people to create interactions as they are fully equipped with the information as to why some of the parties will behave in a manner that is different from others. The fact makes life on the part of beings to be entirely easy.


Critics of Psychoanalytic models

Psychoanalytic models have over the years gotten many critics from a set of experts that have tried to adapt the procedures offered by them. The following are some of the major critics of the psychoanalytic models. In the first place, the psychodynamic model explains that majority of the psychological disorders are stemmed from maladaptive defenses that are always against the unconscious. As Dreher(2000)puts it, the fact implies that treatment offered using psychoanalytic models helps in the uncovering of suppressed memories for the person to find it easy in confronting and moving past them. However, modern research has shown that the model lacks full and detailed information as it does not adequately explain the human psychological disorders (Guntrip, 1978). In addition, many traumatic events can take place at later stages in life making a person suffer from serious distress and other conditions such as PTSD. This comes to disagree with the early explanation offered by psychoanalysts claiming that childhood events could be traced back while they did not offer any further explanations.

Another major critic of the psychoanalysis models comes from the fact that majority of the researches that were conducted on these models were done using case studies and pathology in human beings, especially adults. The models conducted several studies relating to the human mind making them come up with a set of theories that were not falsifiable, hence open for interpretation. Two of such methods have been brought into question by the available scientists: increased lack of information and research in children with further the lack of empirical studies in children(Grunbaum,1985). Majority of the studies conducted by scientific experts conducted in the recent times continue to criticize some of the assumptions created by such kinds of models. In addition the assumptions made by such kinds of models greatly failed in using tools such as Meta analysis and data based studies.

Stern 2000, further says that good number of feminists have come together to critic the fact that majority of the psychological models were dominated by the male counterparts. Majority of the studies that were carried out put much of their attention on males instead of balancing and addressing issues from both genders. In addition, the respective female counterparts have gone ahead to complain that the assumptions made by such kinds of models are strongly against women (Blass, 2003). Furthermore, the women psychologists claimed that the models came up with some concepts that played crucial parts in discrediting the notions of feminists during the early years. The models should have gone ahead to address both sides and show how they react to different situations in life and not dwell and focus much of its attention in degrading the lives of other human beings.

The psychoanalytic model describes human beings as having aggressive and sexual tendencies and wishes. Such kinds of tendencies have been noted to be governed by both the irrational and unconscious forces that cause reactions by the help of biological and instinctual drives. Thus, in this theory, human beings are reduced to animals by the attempt to make controls of the drives which are not in line with social conducts and orders. Scientists have come together to disagree that sexuality and psychosexual cannot be the main facts that can be used in determining the behavior of human beings.

In conclusion, it has been seen that psychoanalysis is involves the study of the mind that aims at reducing the various disorders that come with it. The disorders are identified by the study of both the conscious and unconscious elements in the mind of human beings. Psychoanalysis is comprised of three major components that work and coordinate to give meaningful functions to the mind. The various models have been used to get adverse changes to the lives of beings hence helping them understand the mind in a more detailed and informed manner. Despite being essential in the field of research, modern scientists have come together to criticize some of the early assumptions made by the models as being unreliable and having bad intentions to the society in which they are found.

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